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A

acrosome

Anterior part of sperm head.

artificial insemination

Procedure to collect male’s semen and directly inject into female’s uterus after a special preparation. Normally the husband sperm are used and it is called AIH (Artificial insemination with husband sperm).

Asthenospermia

Sperm concentration is sufficient and sperm is living but a condition which sperm is not moving at all

asthenozoospermia

Sperm motility is less than 50% or active sperm that makes straight-line motion is less than 25%.

azoospermia

No sperm exists in the semen. There are cases which sperm are not produced and cases which sperm are created but not transported.

Azoospermia

Absence of sperms in ejaculate. It is divided into obstructive and non-obstructive.

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B

blastocyst

Blastocyst is the embryo before implantation which cell division of fertilized egg has reached the 100~200 cell stage.

Blastocyst transfer

Treatment which cultivates the fertilized egg outside the body about 5 days longer than normal, grows it until the stage before implantation and transfers it back to the uterus. The rate of implantation is 2 times more than the normal 4 cell transfer and this is an extremely effective treatment for people who have problems in the fallopian tube or had many transfers.

BT

Blastocyst Transfer

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C

Cancellation rate of freezing blastocyst

The chance which does not lead to freezing as the egg does not grow into a blastocyst after egg retrieval and fertilization.

cervical mucus

Viscous and transparent vaginal secretion which can be felt 3~4 days before ovulation. It’s produced by cervical mucus glandand reacts to Estradiol (E2) which is a hormone released from a mature follicle. Cervical mucus creates an environment to make it easier for the sperm to enter the uterus.

Chlamydia

Infection caused by bacteria called Chlamydia trachomatis and triggers urethritis and prostatitis for male and cervicitis for female.

Chlamydia infection

Infection caused by bacteria are Chlamydia trachomatis, triggers urethritis, and prostatitis male, and cervicitis in females.

Chorionic tissue from an aborted fetus

When implantation of fertilized egg takes place on the endometrium it takes root and tries to get nutrition from the mother’s body. Chorionic tissue is the part that makes this action.

Clomiphene citrate

A type of ovulation induction drug which is an internal medicine widely used in fertility treatment. Used in Clomiphene cycle ovulation.

Clomiphene cycle

Cycle which uses an ovulation induction drug called Clomiphene citrate. It grows the egg and delays natural ovulation.

Cryotop method

A method to carry out vitrification by using a thin board-shaped tool called cryotop.

Cyst-formation

Ill-conditioned sac which fluid is collected inside.

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D

Disorder of pituitary gland function

Hormone secretion is controlled by the pituitary gland in the brain but the hormone secretion is abnormal from functional disorder.

dominant follicle

One follicle among number of follicles which grows large and becomes ready for ovulation.

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E

E2 (Estrogen)

Follicle hormone. A type of female hormone which has the effect of increasing endometrium thickness and stimulating secretion of cervical mucus.

Embryo transfer

Treatment to transfer back the fertilized egg into the uterus at the cleavage or blastocyst stage.

endometriosis

Condition which endometrial tissue exists outside the uterus or in other organ. If it occurs in the ovary, it becomes the cause of Chocolate cyst and adhesion.

Estrogen

Hormone secreted from the ovaries and a type of follicle hormone

Estrogen drug

Drug to supplement follicle hormone which is one of female hormone. Premarin is one example.

ET

Embryo Transfer

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F

fimbria

Part at ends of fallopian tubes which shape looks like a sea anemone. Catches the ovulated egg and transfers to fallopian tube. If adhesion of fimbria occurs, it cannot capture the egg into the fallopian tube and becomes the cause of infertility.

Fresh blastocyst transfer

Transfer blastocyst without freezing after ovulation

Frozen blastocyst transfer

Transfer blastocyst which has been retrieved and freezed before.

FSH (Follicle Stimulating Hormone)

Hormone secreted by pituitary gland and stimulates the ovaries and growth of follicle.

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G

Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone (GnRH Agonist)

Medicine which controls the pituitary gland in the brain and controls production of FSH (follicular stimulating hormone) and LH (luteinizing hormone). It’s a nasal medicine you spray into your nose.  In the beginning, it has an effect to raise the LH and FSH in a short time and it's used for ovulation or egg retrieval.

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H

hMG (Human Menopausal Gonadotropin)

A type of ovulation induction drug which is an injection drug widely used in fertility treatment. It contains both Follicle Stimulating Hormone and Luteinizing Hormone.

hMG injection

A type of ovulation induction drug which is an injection drug widely used in fertility treatment. Kato Ladies Clinic thinks there are cases when good eggs cannot be retrieved by taking large quantity of hMG.

HR cycle(Hormone supplement cycle)

It’s a cycle that controls all hormone with drugs. Ovulation will not happen and follicles will not grow. Basal body temperature will not change as well and stay at the same level.

HSG (hysterosalpingography)

Essential examination that checks the condition of the fallopian tube and diagnose whether there are abnormality in shape of uterus or blockage in fallopian tube. Radiocontrast agents wiill be placed into the uterus and X-ray image will be taken.

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I

Implantation failure

Condition when the embryo cannot adhere and implant to the wall of uterus. Poor growth of endometrium or insufficient attachment factors can be the causes.

in vitro fertilization

Treatment which fertilizes the egg with sperm outside the body and transfers the fertilized egg (embryo) into the uterus.

Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)

Technique applied when there is a problem with number or shape of sperm and cannot have normal fertilization. Carry out fertilization by directly injecting one sperm into retrieved egg with a needle.

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K

Kaufmann treatment cycle

Treatment cycle to make it closer to normal menstruation cycle for people who have menstrual irregularity or amenorrhea.

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L

laparoscopic examination

Method to diagnose by opening a small hole in the abdomen, putting an endoscope inside and observing the images on a monitor. If necessary, it can take out tissue or have a laparoscopic surgery.

LH (Luteinizing Hormone)

Hormone secreted from pituitary gland and instructs ovulation.

LH surge

LH surge is a sudden release of mass amount of luteinizing hormone(LH). It becomes the direct trigger of ovulation and the time between LH surge to ovulation is about 40 hours.

luteal function test

Examination which measures the progensterone in the blood when basal body temperature is in higher temperature phase after ovulation. Progensterone has an important function for implantation and growth of fertilized egg.

Luteal hormone

It has a big role in implantation and growth of fertilized egg

Luteal insufficiency

Lack of luteal hormone secretion. Caused by various reasons such as ovulation abnormality.

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O

Oligozoospermia

Sperm exists in semen, but low sperm concentration. Sperm concentration less than 15 million/m. (WHO 2011)

Oocyte pick-up function

The fimbria which sensed the maturation of the dominant follicle will cover the whole follicle before ovulation and captures the ovulated egg into the ampulla of Fallopian tube.

Ovarian Hyper Stimulation Syndrome (OHSS)

Side effect from excessive stimulation to the ovaries from ovulation induction drug given in fertility treatment. The ovaries become swollen and fluid is collected in the abdomen.

ovulation

The women’s menstrual cycle is a result of ovulation which a mature egg is released from the ovary once a month.

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P

P4 (Progestron)

Luteal hormone. A type of female hormone which causes secretory changes in the endometrium and prepares it for implantation and maintenance of pregnancy. It is also responsible for the increase in basal body temperature.

peritonitis

Peritonitis is inflammation of the peritoneum, which lines the abdominal cavity. When endometritis becomes severe from cervicitis and spreads to the peritoneum. When it becomes severe it causes adhesion of fallopian tubes, ovary, uterus, intestine and peritoneum, and it may become the reason of infertility.

Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS)

Common symptoms of PCOS are anovulation, amenorrhea,irregular menstruation, and infertility. The prevalance is higher in younger generation and it is usually difficult for PCOS patients to conceive naturally. The ultrasound imaging shows polycystic ovaries. Hirsutism, acne and obesity, due to excessive amounts of androgenic hormones, are seen in patients with PCOS especially in foreign countries, but not typical in Japan. Therefore we have our own diagnostic criteria which was established a few years ago. The ratio of LH (Luteinizing hormone) to FSH (Follicle stimulating hormone), which are released from pituitary gland, is higher than normal. LH level is usually elevated. Patients sensitive to ovulation induction agents will have a risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) which may lead to severe complications. There are cautions to use such agents for patients with PCOS. They are more likely to have empty follicles (no oocyte (egg) in the follicle that is retrieved) and poor quality of the oocyte when it is retrieved. This results in failure to fertilize.

Positive for antisperm antibody

Immunity reaction which sperm is antigen. Causes coagulation and immobility of sperm and prevents fertilization.

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S

Screening test (Karyotyping)

Screening test in this case is a test to check existence of various chromosome anomaly such as down syndrome.

Severe oligozoospermia

Number of sperm in the semen is less than 2 million/ml.

Slow freezing

A method carried out in early human embryo transfer. Complicated operation which needs many equipments and takes a very long time for freezing.

Spermatic cord

Cord-like structure that is covered by film which covers spermatic duct, blood vessel, nerves and lymph vessel.

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T

Teratozoospermia

When normal shaped sperm is less than 15%. (WHO standard 1999)

Timed intercourse

To give advice on having sexual intercourse on the day most likely to become pregnant by predicting the ovulation day.

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U

ultrasound

Examination to observe the internal structure by showing an image using ultrasonic wave which reflects when it hits an object.

uterine cavity

The uterus has a shape of a pouch and it’s the space within that pouch.

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V

Varicocele

Condition of blood stasis made in veins by backflow from scrotum

Vitrification

A method to prevent ice crystal form inside the cell. Highly concentrated cryoprotective agent is permeated into the cell and after drying it, the moisture inside and outside of the cell becomes a solid matter of glass by rapidly dropping the temperature.

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Other

βhCG

Pregnancy hormone. βhCG is secreted from the placenta when pregnant.

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